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Introduction To Segmentation: The microprocessor has 20 bit address pins; these are capable of addressing 1MegaByte memory. Causes all segments to default to DWORD alignmentP enabled assembly of all instructions (see) enabled assembly of instructions . This directive tells the assembler the name of the logical segment it should use for a specified segment. For example ASSUME CS:CODE, tells.

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If the word is at even address can read a memory in 1 bus cycle. Posted by k10blogger at 2: DW — Define Word This directive is used to define a variable of type word or to reserve storage location of type word in memory.

Its format is as follows: EQU This directive is used to give a name to some value or to a symbol. Executable statements- These are the statements to be executed by the processor. A series of words can be read much more quickly if they are at even address. This directive is used to declare a byte type variable or to store a byte in memory assemlber. This directive is used to define a variable which is 10 bytes in length or to reserve 10 bytes of storage in the memory.

DD — Define Doubleword.

Segmentation helps in the following way. Engineering in your eirectives Download our mobile app and study on-the-go.

The DT directive directs the assembler to define the specified variable requiring bytes for its storage and initialize the bytes with the specified values. This directive is used with name of the segment to indicate the end of that logic segment. The DB directive is used to reserve byte or bytes of memory locations in the available memory.

Name or labels referred to as external in one module must be declared public with the PUBLIC directive in the module in which they assembker defined.


Link list 2 Automata Languages and Computation. Link list 3 Automata Languages and Computation. In many cases the program is optimized and kept unaltered for the specific application. This directive is used to define a variable of type doubleword or to reserve storage location of type doubleword in memory. Offset Of A Label: For completing all these tasks, an assembler needs some INCLUDE- This directive is used to tell the assembler to insert a block of source code from the named file into the current source module.

It processes the pseudo operands and directives. Newer Post Older Post Home. Popular Tags Blog Archives. It is necessary to do this in any instruction where the type of the operand is not clear. For completing all these tasks, an assembler needs some hints from the programmer. The SHORT operator indicates the assembler that only one byte is required to code the displacement for a jump. CODE [name] The name in this format is optional.

Macro Assembler Directives

To generate this 20 bit physical address from 2 sixteen bit registers, the following procedure is adopted. It also analyses the segments used by the program types and labels and their memory requirements. Logical Name Of A Module: This directive is used to form logical groups of segments with similar purpose or type.

If the content of the location counter is already even, then the procedure will be assigned axsembler the same address. Byte Length Of A Label: GROUP This directive is used to group the logical segments named after the directive into one logical group segment.

The Addressing Modes. And are typically used to add or subtract displacements 8 or 16 bit to base or index registers or stack or base pointers. IR0 has the highest priority and IR7 has the lowest one. The specialty of these statements is that they are effective only during the assembly of a program but they do not generate any code that is machine executable.

When EVEN is used the location counter will simply incremented to next address and NOP instruction is inserted in that incremented location.


Link list 4 Automata Languages and Computation. Define Ten bytes [DT]- It is used to define the data items that are 10 bytes long. DB — Define Byte. Mohaimen Himu October 24, at The ORG directive directs the assembler to start the memory allotment for the particular segment, block or code from the declared address in the ORG statement. The code segment registers are used to hold programs,data segment register to keep data, stack segment register for stack operations and directifes segment register to keep strings of data.

This directive marks the end of a logical segment. The assembler will ignore any statements after an END directive, so you should make sure to use only one END directive at the very end of your program module. This directive indicates the assembler that the label following FAR PTR is not available within the same segment and the address of the bit is assfmbler 32 bits i.


These types of hints are given to the assembler using some predefined alphabetical strings called assembler directives, which sssembler the assembler to correctly understand the assembly language program to prepare the codes. It consists of the entire instruction set of Categories Automata Languages and Computation.

The EVEN directive updates the location counter to the next even address, if the current location counter contents are not even, and assigns the aasembler routine or variable or constant to that address. DT — Define Ten Bytes This directive is used to define a variable which is 10 bytes in length or to reserve 10 bytes of storage in the memory.