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Molecular diffusion and nuclear magnetic resonance; pp. In diffusion MRI, magnetic field gradients are employed to sensitize the image to diffusion in a particular direction.
An introduction to diffusion tensor image analysis
We especially recommend the new diffusion MRI textbook [ 1 ], the introductory paper on fiber tracts and tumors [ susumi ], the white matter atlas book [ 3 ], and the review of potential pitfalls in DTI analysis [ 4 ]. The MD and trace measured in ventricles or in edema can be higher than in water due to fluid flow or enhanced perfusion, respectively [ 43 ].
The particular errors depend strongly on the tractography algorithm employed, and on the type of diffusion data used DTI versus higher-order models. We acknowledge the following support: New diffusion models, scanning paradigms, and analysis methods are continually being developed for diffusion MRI. This equation describes how the signal intensity at each voxel decreases in the presence of Gaussian diffusion:.
Cambridge University Press; A significant fraction of WM voxels in the brain contains multiple fiber bundles oriented in different directions, where the diffusion tensor model is not reliable [ 74 ]. Example false positive streamline tractography error. Partial volume effects, where two types of tissue are present in a voxel, can produce a tensor that represents neither tissue well [ 83 ].
Also shown top row, middle is a mapping of the major eigenvector orientation to colors. The word tractography refers to any method for estimating the trajectories of the fiber tracts in the white matter.
Automated methods introductuon atlas-based tractography segmentation, that use ingroduction knowledge to select trajectories, have also been developed [ 636064 ditfusion, 65666768 ].
Introduction to Diffusion Tensor Imaging – Susumu Mori – Google Books
In the right column are coronal views of the typical streamline tractography result top and expected anatomy bottom. The measured diffusion effects are averaged over a voxel three-dimensional pixelcomplicating the biophysical interpretation of the diffusion tensor [ 8384 ]. An example using glyphs imagign colors for DTI visualization. Shariar, Alexander Andrew L.
Employment of multiple pairs of diffusion gradients double pulsed field gradient diffusion MRI has been shown to increase sensitivity to small size scales [ 9495 ]. We have tried to include equations for completeness but they are not necessary for understanding the paper. Resolving crossings in the corticospinal tract by two-tensor streamline tractography: Author manuscript; available in PMC Apr 1. Orthogonal tensor invariants and the analysis of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance images.
Note however, that the diffusion tensor is not able to fully describe crossing of the fiber tracts [ 1213 ].
An introduction to diffusion tensor image analysis
It has been applied to a tremendous variety of neuroscientific studies see reviews in [ 141516 ] including schizophrenia [ 17 ], traumatic brain injury [ 18 ], multiple sclerosis [ 1920 ], autism [ 21 ], and aging [ 22 ]. Studying connections in the living human brain with diffusion MRI. Proceedings of the 10th international conference on Medical image computing and computer-assisted intervention-Volume Part I; Diffuusion MR diffusion kurtosis imaging for neural tissue characterization.
In both images introsuction color red indicates right-left orientation, blue is superior-inferior, and green is anterior-posterior.
A fixed step size of one millimeter or less smaller than a voxel is generally used for DTI imzging. Its name comes from the fact that it measures the fraction of the diffusion that is anisotropic. In addition to streamline tractography, there are many other methods [ 5051 ]. The most common approach is streamline tractography Figure 6 [ 52535455 ], which is closely related to an earlier method for visualization of tensor fields known as hyperstreamlines [ 56 ].
Probabilistic diffusion tractography with multiple fibre diffusuon Visualization of second order tensor fields and matrix data.
Overall, this difficulty in interpretation of DTI is due to the fact that the scale tenssor which diffusion is measured with DTI is very different from the size scale of individual axons. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Imaging biomarkers in multiple sclerosis. The right image contains glyphs representing major eigenvector orientations and scaled by the largest eigenvalue in the region of the corpus callosum yellow and red and right lateral ventricle.
Table 1 The scale of DTI and the brain: